Friday, September 20, 2019

Comparison of Weber and Durkheim

Comparison of Weber and Durkheim Anomie and forced division of labour for Durkheim and rationalization and bureaucracy for Weber summed up the problem of industrial societies. Discuss. Introduction Emile Durkheim Max Weber Conclusion Bibliography Introduction Anomie represents a concept that was introduced by Emile Durkheim (1997, pp. 303-304) in â€Å"The Division of Labor in Society†, which was first printed in 1893. Durkheim (1997, pp. 303-304) utilized the word to describe the deregulation of society whereby the rules representing how people should behave with respect to their interaction with each other was breaking down thus creating confusion as to what in what others expected from one another. In said book, Durkheim (1997, p. 184) advises that that term is where the moral and social norms are not clear, and the removal of behavioural limits represented a path to deviant behaviour. Durkheim is credited with turning sociology into a science as well as its installation as part of the academic curriculum on France, and is considered by many to be the father of sociology (emile-durkheim.com, 2006). Max Weber (cepa.newschool.edu, 2007) is also recognized as one of the founders of sociology. He advises us on many instances that in the world of modernity, that the gods have deserted us (Turner, 1993, pp. 115-117). As Durkheim focused upon a set of social features that represented the subject of sociology, Weber essentially is considered as defining sociology (Marxists Internet Archive, 1999). This exercise shall delve into concepts and terms with respect to how anomie and forced division of labour under Durkheim, and rationalization and bureaucracy for Weber summed up the problem of industrial societies. Durkheim In defining sociology as an academic subject, Durkheim separated sociology from psychology, philosophy as well as economics and other disciplines through stating that sociologists study features of group life (About Sociology, 2007). Durkheim defines solidarity as representing the cohesion of society’s human groupings into social unity, which can consist of mechanical as well as organic (Durkheim, 1997, p. 13-14). Mechanical solidarity represents a condition whereby the individuals within a society are linked via a ‘conscience collective’ (Durkheim, 1997, pp. 61-65). The preceding represents a condition whereby the belief systems and the sentiments that are common in the citizens within the same society (Durkheim, 1997, pp. 31-33). Thus, the individuals within the society are connected, or linked to each other as a result of their common beliefs, thereby belonging to society as opposed to belonging to themselves (Durkheim, 1997, pp. 31-33). A horde is what Durkhei m (1997, pp. 126-127) termed a group or collection of people whereby their cohesiveness is founded in resemblances. Such a group, horde, has no organization or form, and within this group the collective membership look upon each other as kin, whether or not such a relationship exists by blood or union (Durkheim, 1997, pp. 126-127). Within such a group, horde, punishments and responsibility are collective in action and nature and represent the more primitive, or non evolved societal types whereby individual personalities are submerged in the collectivity of the group (Durkheim, 1997, pp. 126-127). As individuals come to rely upon others, outside of themselves for various aspects of life, they have, or are moving towards an organic solidarity (Durkheim, 1997, pp. 69-71). People become and are reliant upon each other whereby individuals have parts to contribute to society as a part of the whole, whereby responsibility to others is a trait as well as moral character (Durkheim, 1997, p. 77). The foregoing is important in understanding the interactions within society that he termed as the moral density (Durkheim, 1997, p. 201). The preceding, moral density is proportionately linked to the division of labor within a society (Turner, 1993, p. 3). Moral density represents an important factor in understanding what causes increased division of labor. Durkheim’s (1993, pp. 113) believes in this revolved around two facets that he thought were responsible for the preceding, material density and social volume. The former, Durkheim states is (Turner, 1993, p. 113): â€Å"Social life is based on a substratum whose size and form alike are determined. It is made up of the mass of individuals that constitute society, the manner of their geographical distribution and the nature and configuration of the whole range of phenomena that affect collective relations. The social substratum varies in relation to the size or density of the population, to whether it is concentrated in towns or scattered in rural areas, to the layout of the towns and houses, to whether the space occupied by the society concerned is large or small, to the kind of frontiers by which it is bounded, to the transport links which run the length and breadth of it, etc, On the other hand, the makeup of this substratum directly or indirectly affects all social phenomena, in the same way as all psychic phenomena are in mediate or immediate relation to the state of the brain. So these are all problems that are patently concerned with sociology and which, as they all refer to the same obj ect, must be part of one science. It is this science we propose to call social morphology.† Social volume, Durkheim states is (Turner, 1993, p. 116): â€Å"†¦as the various elements constituting the group grow more numerous, yet without at the same time ceasing to be closely connected, individuals can only hold their own if they become differentiated, if each chooses a task and a lifestyle of his own in this enlarged battlefield, where the intensity of the struggle grows in keeping with the number of the combatants. The division of labor thus becomes the primary condition of social equilibrium. And indeed, this simultaneous increase in the volume and density of societies is the major new element distinguishing the nations of today from those of former times; this is probably one of the principal factors dominating history as a whole; at any rate, it is the cause which explains the transformations which social solidarity has undergone.† Durkheim (Turner, 1993, pp. 98-99) brings together the facets of anomie, organic solidarity and â€Å"the abnormal forms of the division of labor† through â€Å"distinguished three pathological forms: the anomic, the enforced division of labor, and ‘another abnormal form’, which might be termed lack of internal organizational coordination†. With respect to the foregoing anomie â€Å"is expressed in economic crises, the antagonism between capital and labor, and anarchy in science, arises at times of rapid change, during which new organs and functions develop without a corresponding development of rules of cooperation and therefore of social ties† (Turner, 1993, p. 98). Anomie, represents the rapid as well as radical change in social conditions that presents itself as â€Å"the lack of regulation or deregulation† Turner, 1993, p. 98). Durkheim (Turner, 1993, p. 98) explains that the foregoing does not represent a â€Å"fundamental crisis of the system, but rather a crisis of adaptation, and continuous contact will eventually produce new rules and a new functional equilibrium between the divided functions, thus assuring social integration†. Whereas â€Å"anomie can be eliminated by the gradual development of new rules, in the case of the enforced division of labor it is ‘these very rules themselves which are the cause of the ills† (Turner, 1993, p. 98). The preceding represents when the rules and underpinnings of society are not responsive to the underlying changes in the fabric of society, and thus the established order is retained by force (Turner, 1993, p. 98). This represents the abnormal form of the division of labor that is representative of privileged positions being held by birth and social standing as opposed to abilities and talents Turner, 1993, p. 99). The condition, asserts can be alleviated through the adoption of â€Å"formal equality of opportunity †¦Ã¢â‚¬  as well as â€Å"†¦ freedom to choose a profession† (Durkheim Turner, 1993, p. 99). Max Weber Breiner (1996, p. 26) advises that the critics of Weber’s approach to social science have issues with his reduction of â€Å"all socially interpreted activity to instrumental rationality†. Those who interpret him in a sympathetic manner see â€Å"his focus on the interpretation of the meaningful conduct of social agents a strong argument in favor of the subservience of explanation to the rules or everyday understandings under which actions are intelligible† (Breiner, 1996, p. 26). Turner (1993, p. 4) advises us to be circumspect with regard to Weber’s approach to modernism and rationalization as â€Å"he remained highly ambiguous about the content and consequences† with regard to the foregoing. The preceding, Turner (1993, p. 5) states that the preceding is a result of â€Å"Weber’s ambiguities over capitalism were also expressed in his ambivalent attitudes to socialism as a rational planning of the market†. He, Weber, argues that â₠¬Å"socialism was another step in the growth of rational management of resources; socialism represented a further development of the second serfdom—to calculation, planning, and instrumental rationalism† (Turner, 1993, p. 5). Turner (1993, p. 5) further informs us that â€Å"main issue in Weber’s political sociology is the absence of any analysis of the processes of democratization, about which Weber remained skeptical, if not dismissive†. He (Turner, 1993, p. 5) supports the preceding in stating that â€Å"In this respect, Weber was significantly influenced by Robert Michels’s theory of ‘the iron law of oligarchy’, which suggested that all mass-party organization would come to depend on an elite†. To further understand Weber’s meaning, before we delve into the preceding further, we must understand vocational politics, which represents a vocation, stating that â€Å"For everything that is striven for through political action, operating with violent means and following an ethic of responsibility, endangers the salvation of the soul† (Breiner, 1996, p. 6). Weber continues: â€Å"If, however, one chases after the ultimate good in a war of beliefs, following a pure ethic of absolute ends, then the goals may be damaged and discredited for generations, because responsibility for the consequences are lacking and those diabolic forces which enter into play remain unknown to the actor. These [forces] are inexorable and produce consequences for his action and even for his inner self, to which he must helplessly submit, unless he perceives them†. His â€Å"ambiguity over whether he is giving an impartial general account of the logic of methodical action or a subjective situation-bound account of the multiple logics that constitute the different terrains of action† along with vocational politics have bearing on his concept of rationalization as it tends to skew his view against democracy â€Å"by appealing to objective standards of feasibility while maintaining that commitment to either form is a matter of personal choice† (Breiner, 1996, p. 10). The foregoing has direct bearing upon Weber’s concept of rationalization (Breiner, 1996, p. 10). The preceding thus permits us to explore Weber’s approach and concepts of modernisation within what Turner (1993, p. 12) calls â€Å"a Weberian conceptualization of modern social change†. Within modernity the social as well as cultural facets of life do not point us towards an orderly life, but instead â€Å"a number of life spheres whose demands are objective and not influenced by the subject† (Breiner, 1996, p. 59). Each of these spheres is represented by â€Å"its own logic of action† (Breiner, 1996, p. 59). Turner (1993, p. 16) advises that â€Å"In bureaucracy, rationalization produced a system of reliable, dependable decision-making for the realization of public goals†. Weber argues that â€Å"Secularization had liberated human beings from the magical world of the ancients†, and that â€Å"the very same processes of rationalization threaten to subordinate imagination and inspiration to the demands of standardized routines and technical procedures† (Turner, 1993, pp. 16-17). Turner (1993, p. 17) continues â€Å"they threaten to produce a new characterology of soulless, machine-like robots†. The preceding is contained in context in Weber’s address of September 1919 (Turner, 1993, p. 17). â€Å"The fate of our age, with its characteristic rationalization and intellectualization and above all the disenchantment of the world is that the ultimate, most sublime values have withdrawn from public life, either into the transcendental realm of mystical life or into the brotherhood of immediate personal relationships between individuals. It is no accident that our greatest art is intimate rather than monumental, nor is it fortuitous that today only in the smallest groups, between individuals, something pulsates in pianissmo which corresponds to the prophetic pneuma which formerly swept through great communities like fire and welded them together† Conclusion The bureaucratic maze sees â€Å"the projects of political actors may collide not only with the maximizing logic of economic actors seeking power over the market but also with the logic or bureaucracy, which undermines this economic logic† (Briener, 1996, pp. 115-116). In order to overcome the preceding, Weber explains that the political actors â€Å"may have to mobilize masses of citizens under party machines† (Briener, 1996, p. 116). Turner (1993, p. 92) explains that under â€Å"patrimonialism, at each stage of the tax-gathering exercise and at each level of the bureaucracy, the tax-yield was progressively creamed-off by the bureaucracy†. The bureaucratic nature of the new state systems utilized bureaucratic level to administer programs that were overseen by inefficient levels of management and response to the public good, thus creating a tax based support system that stood upon the back of its supporters (Turner, 1993, p. 93). The preceding stifled creativity and innovation within the system as those in power seeking to maintain their power acted out of their own self interests and political interest first, as opposed to a view to the future that would have benefited their nation as a whole. This defensive posture of holding onto the popular and or accepted views in face of better approaches is a hallmark of bureaucracy which dehumises the human element in support of its own well being and safekeeping. The bureaucracy nature of industrial societies is still in force today, whereby the conforming to the norm represents the belief systems for the majority of its populations thus making Weber’s â€Å"soulless, machine-like robots† Turner, 1993, p. 17)a reality for the lower and middle classes. An upper class still does exist as defined by educational attainment and or family heritage, and this can be found throughout the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan and other industrialized nations whereby the founders of major corporations have the heirs and or appointees installed as the operative heads of these machines of capitalisation. This brings us back to Durkheim’s forced division of labor (Turner, 1993, pp. 98-99)which still exists and is a control factor in modern industrialized societies as indicated by the aforementioned educational and heritage facets. The existence of unions and associations to obtain rights and conditions for workers is proof of the foregoing, for if the machinery of society were in fact skewed to all of its individuals, then the need for these types of organizations would not be necessary. This is brings us to what Durkheim (Turner, 1993, p. 98) stated as a â€Å"fundamental crisis of the system, but rather a crisis of adaptation, and continuous contact will eventually produce new rules and a new functional equilibrium between the divided functions, thus assuring social integration†. Privileged positions are to a large degree still a factor of one’s birth, with specialised higher education and contacts representing a path to the upper echelons. Thus Durkheim and Web er were prophetic in their analysis and understandings on some facets. Bibliography About Sociology (2007) Emile Durkheim. Retrieved o 27 May 2007 from http://www.aboutsociology.com/sociology/Emile_Durkheim Briener, P. (1996) Max Weber Democratic Politics. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., United States cepa.newschool.edu (2007) Max Weber, 1864-1920. Retrieved on 27 May 2007 from http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/profiles/weber.htm Durkheim, E. (1997) The Division of Labor in Society. Free Press. New York, United States emile-durkheim.com (2006) Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). Retrieved on 27 May 2007 from http://www.emile-durkheim.com/ Marxists Internet Archive (1999) Max Weber: Definition of Sociology. Retrieved on 27 May 2007 from http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/weber.htm Turner, S. (1993) Emile Durkheim: Sociologist and Moralist. Routledge Publishers, New York, United States Turner, B. (1993) Max Weber: From History to Modernity. Routledge Publications, London, United Kingdom

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Right Key :: Free Essays Online

The Right Key Today many common, everyday functions are governed by punching the right keys. Whether you are "surfing" the World Wide Web or making a long-distance phone call, you essentially press some type of key to manipulate some form of technology. This ability to manipulate technology can be considered a "literacy": a mastery of the specific skills and knowledge required to use technology to a person's advantage. Because of their widespread use in everyday life, a literacy of different forms of technology is a necessity for people today. The ability to use some form of technology to your own advantage is to be technologically literate. Technology encompasses everything from computers, the World Wide Web, and e-mail to telephones, cash machines, and library cataloguing resources. This definition implies just a working knowledge and familiarity with the technology in the world today and not a complete, in depth knowledge. A knowledge is mandatory for all because technology is constantly surrounding people today. Computers and related objects are now used by not only scientists and engineers but also students and parents. A knowledge of how to search the World Wide Web can be useful when a student is looking for references for a report. Checking a bank account balance over the phone can be a useful skill for a parent with little time. Both skills however require a literacy of computer, telephone, and banking technology. In my own experience, a technological literacy is essential in my life: there is not a day where I do not use some form of technology. Not only do I use a long distance code when calling home but I also acquire money to pay my phone bill from a cash machine. I frequently e-mail friends at other colleges and have an electronic meal plan on my college ID card. When writing papers I do research with the on-line library catalog and actually write my paper on my computer. If I did not know how to use these forms of technology I would certainly not be able to pass my english class. Thus for people who are illiterate technologically their lives become more complex and at times difficult in a world which is very dependent on technology. If you urgently need money at midnight, and do not know how to use a cash machine, can you wait till the bank opens in the morning? A person can only search for references on a computer and save themselves large amounts of time if they know how to use a computer.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Angela’s Ashes - Frank McCourts Love/Hate Relationship with his Father

Angela’s Ashes - Frank McCourt's Love/Hate Relationship with his Father Angela’s Ashes is a memoir of Frank McCourt’s childhood and the difficulties he faced whilst growing up. His family were very poor and moved from America to Limerick to try and live an easier life. Frank’s father was constantly out of a job and never had enough money to support his family. Frank and his father have a very interesting relationship. Throughout the book, Frank constantly changes the way he feels for his father. There are times when Frank completely despises him and others where he idolises him. At the beginning of the book, Frank explains that Malachy was â€Å"the shiftless loquacious alcoholic father,† giving the reader a bad impression of him. As the story moves on, there are several places where you can see that Frank loves his father, despite all the hard times he has put him and his family through. Malachy is constantly out of a job, leaving his family to survive on their own through poverty. He uses every single penny they have at the pubs; it drives Frank mad and he loses all respect for him. Frank completely loathes his father when he upsets his mother. He makes her angry which Frank cannot stand. â€Å"My heart is banging away in my chest and I don’t know what to do because I know I’m raging inside like my mother†. Malachy comes home drunk so often; the three boys know exactly what’s going on and what they have to do. â€Å"We know Dad has done the bad thing and we know you can make anyone suffer by not talking to him. † Frank knew what his father deserved for making his mother unhappy and didn’t hesitate to ignore him when he’d done the ‘bad thing’. As they couldn’t rely on Malachy, Frank knew it was his j... ...wever, the only time he despised and hated him was when he was under the influence of the drink. Malachy would use the money for his addiction but nothing else. If Malachy did not have a drinking problem, he would probably do anything for his children. When he wasn’t drunk, Malachy had so much love and care for his children and would give them anything. The books leaves the reader with a warm, affection their love for one another is and this impression leaves you to overlook the previous feelings you had for Malachy as an incompetent father. Frank loved him so much and cherished the moments he spent with him. He looked up to him with much admiration. Frank loved spending time with him and idolised him. Frank only hated his father for keeping his mother and brothers in crippling hunger but loved him when he was sober, and trying to look after the family.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

American Beauty: Interpersonal Conflict in Film Essay

In any type of relationship there is conflict. It is inevitable really as the needs of more than one person must be met to have a copacetic or symbiotic relationship. Whether the interpersonal conflict is constructive or destructive, the key to its resolution is in how the conflict is managed and the amelioration each party receives from it. That is easier said than done though. Watching interpersonal conflict play out in film is a cathartic way to empathize with a character that is or characters that are going through a similar conflict experienced by the films viewer. This viewer can take note of the outcome from the decision the character(s) made in this similar instance. If the viewer had taken a negative route, this film can provide him or her with the alternative to his or her behavior should this situation arise again. If the viewer had taken a positive route this can show him or her what could have been had he or she not made the decision(s) he or she in fact made. In the film American Beauty, the viewer is shown what the question of beauty always begs to answer with a wry outlook. Is beauty only held in the outward appearance? Is beauty this mask worn to show the world what we think they want to see? Or is beauty what we keep sheltered or locked within? Is it what is inside- our thoughts, passions, hopes, dreams, strengths and weaknesses? Is it what is just below the surface- skeletons in the closet or the dysfunctional realm only few are privy to and no one really puts a spotlight on?

Monday, September 16, 2019

Case Study on Cost Efficiency

Introduction It is not easy to compete in the market today. Rising prices, shifting fuel rates, global competition, varying labor rates around the world, and spiraling health insurance costs have made cost control a moving target. Sometimes it seems that a company gets one set of expenses under control, and in the meantime, another area of the company begins experiencing cost overruns. It is a never ending battle to maintain company profitability. The importance of cost efficiency programs within a company cannot be overstated.Companies that are losing money, need to increase profits, or must become more competitive need to cut expenses in order to succeed. Knowing how to implement effective cost reduction strategies can be the determining factor in the survival of a business. Every organization strives to reduce cost and accomplishment of work at minimum resources to gain maximum output and financial performance. Cost efficiency is a measure of the level of resources used to create a given level of product value.How much resources are being used to create an optimum and defined level of outcomes need to work out to determine the cost of resources and cost of ultimate output it brings in existence. Company can offer lower price product for its customer benefits or can provide more features for the same price of product. While allocating Budget Company would like to maintain same level of service provisions and quality but at reduced cost and try to earn profit as much as it can. Objectives of the subject †¢ To study the concept of cost efficiency. †¢ To study importance cost efficiency. To study consequences of cost inefficiency. †¢ To study the case study on cost efficiency with reference to Google purchase Motorola mobility. Research methodology The information for the present study is collected through secondary sources i. e. from books, journal, magazines, internet, etc. Limitation of the study- The information for the present study is collec ted through secondary source no primary source is used. Organization’s Profile Google History of Google Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California.While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between websites. They called this new technology Page Rank, where a website's relevance was determined by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages, that linked back to the original site. A small search engine called â€Å"Rank Dex† from IDD Information Services designed by Robin Li was, since 1996, already exploring a similar strategy for site-scoring and page ranking.The technology in Rank Dex would be patented and used later when Li founded Baidu in China. Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine â₠¬Å"Back Rub†, because the system checked back links to estimate the importance of a site. Eventually, they changed the name to Google, originating from a misspelling of the word â€Å"googol†, the number one followed by one hundred zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine wants to provide large quantities of information for people. Originally, Google ran under theStanford University website, with the domains google. stanford. edu and z. stanford. edu. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997 and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in a friend’s garage in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. In May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors to Google surpassed 1 billion for the first time, an 8. 4 percent increase from May 2010 (931 million). Mission of Google Google Inc. s an American multinational corporation which provides Internet-r elated products and services, including Internet search, cloud computing, software and advertising technologies. Advertising revenues from Ad Words generate almost all of the company's profits. Google is a global technology leader which focuses on improving the ways people connect with information relative to the industry Internet and Computer software. The company mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.Its product lines include Search Advertising, Display Advertising, Mobile Advertising, Tools for Publishers, Local, and Enterprise. Google has became one of the most recognized brand in the world and achieved Market Share of 65. 5% (May 2011) in Search Engine Business. Google became the 4th largest technology company in USA. Rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond the company's core web search engine. The company offers online productivity software including email, an office suite, and social networking.Google's products extend to the desktop as well, with applications for web browsing, organizing & editing photos, and instant messaging. Google leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, as well as the Google Chrome OS browser-only operating system, found on specialized net books called Chrome books. Google has been estimated to run over one million servers in data centers around the world and process over one billion search requests and about twenty-four peta bytes of user-generated data every day. As of September 2009 Alexa listed the main U. S. focused google. com site as the Internet's most visited website, and numerous international Google sites as being in the top hundred, as well as several other Google-owned sites such as YouTube, Blogger and Orkut. Google also ranks number two in the BrandZ brand equity database. The dominant market position of Google's services has led to criticism of the company over issues including privacy, copyright, and censorship. Google’s Organizational Structure According to Fortune and All Business magazines, Google is the fourth-most admired company in the United States.Google was also listed as the top company to work for in both 2007 and 2008. The main reason for this employee admiration is Google’s cross-functional organizational structure, which the company maintains though stellar leadership and innovative management techniques. Motorola History of Motorola Paul V. Galvin and his brother, Joseph E. Galvin, purchase a battery eliminator business in Chicago. In September 1928 they named the company Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation's first product they develop is a battery eliminator which allows electronic devices to run on electricity rather than batter.The name Motorola was given to Galvin’s first car stereo. ‘Motor’ stands for car and ‘ola’ stands for sound. From 1936 onward s, Galvin production lines dominate by manufacturing radios for cars and receivers up to 1947 where they produce their first television and the company name changes from Galvin Manufacturing Corporation to Motorola but then continue manufacturing communications mediums. In 1967, Motorola expands into the following countries: Australia, Canada, France, Hong Kong, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom and West Germany.In 1969, Motorola starts to supply the National American Space Agency (NASA) with radio equipment so astronauhts can communicate with their Earthly bases. The first man on the moon, Neil Armstrong communicated with Earth whilst on the Moon using a Motorola Radio. In 2000 Motorola and General Instrument Corporation merged to enhance their services and in 2001 Motorola introduces the Motorola v60 phone the world first metal mobile phone which is available on the cellular networks GSM, TDMA and CDMA. In 2002 Motorola de veloped released a GPS chip that could be installed into consumer electronics to enable location positioning.Also Motorola released a 3G which is transmitted over CDMA network. Finally, Motorola releases the Cross-Technology PoC product line that enables subscribers to have â€Å"push-to-talk† connectivity across and between GPRS, CDMA2000 1X, and WiFi networks and Motorola releases Ojo Personal Video Phone. Ojo promises broadband connectivity and a video phone that doesn’t break up which is commonly known with video phones. Mission of Motorola Motorola wants to make phone chargers to strap onto millions of owners' bikes in emerging nations because mobile phones are often the only type of phone they own.For many people in those countries, he said, a mobile phone is often the first interaction with a computer or the Internet. Globally and locally, Motorola's mission is to make everything mobile: communication, music, photos, Internet, television. And especially putting content wherever customers want it. Chris White from Motorola's multimedia experience department discussed what Zander called the two biggest customer frustrations: getting music onto a mobile phone and getting pictures off of it. Motorola has partnered with Microsoft to bring DRM technology to its phones.Users will be able to download music from a variety of online music stores into Windows Media Player. Songs can then be dragged, dropped and synched with the phone. In regard to photos, Motorola's new Rizr Z6 phone will have a 2-megapixel camera whose pictures can be sent wirelessly over Bluetooth to a Kodak EasyShare printer. Organizational structure of Motorola The company adopts a more flat organizational structure compared to Nokia and Ericsson and grants more authority to the second level management.Within divisions, the Vice Presidents of the respective segments are authorized to adopt the ideal organizational pattern as an example, matrix approach for new product development divisions/departments, whereas a line or staff structure for production area. The company favors interdepartmental and cross functional teaming of employees and also adopts employee empowerments schemes to make good the lacunae in organizational structure, caused due to centralization of functions. The flat organization of Motorola enables the implementations of management decisions at a faster rate.Concept of cost efficiency Definition of cost efficiency â€Å"Efficiency is the ratio of output to input. A system is cost efficient if, relative to another system, its output cost less per unit of input. A system increases its cost efficiency when it maintains output with less than proportionate increase in input. Efficiency is divided into 2 parts, they are- allocative efficiency and x-efficiency. Allocative efficiency is concerned with the allocation of given resources between alternative uses in ways that maximize social welfare.X-efficiency is concerned with producing more output without any change in the allocation of inputs. It therefore focuses on inefficiencies such as overstaffing and managerial waste†. The act of saving money by making a product or performing an activity in a better way is nothing but cost efficiency. Cost efficiency is a concept which is concerned with comparing different ways of achieving the same objective such that the most cost-effective choice will be the least costly of the alternatives being compared. Cost efficiency takes into account not only the price, but other factors too.Cost efficiency is more expensive at first but in the long run it will save money. This cost efficiency refers to the use of resources so as to maximize the production of goods and services. In accountancy, the cost is said more efficient than another (in relative terms) if it can provide more goods and services for society without using more resources. In absolute terms, a situation can be called efficient if: †¢ No additional output can be o btained without increasing the amount of inputs. †¢ Production proceeds at the lowest possible per-unit cost.These definitions of efficiency are not exactly equivalent, but they are all encompassed by the idea that a system is efficient if nothing more can be achieved given the resources available. The term cost efficiency is a situation in which an organization maximizes benefit and profit, while minimizing effort and expenditure. Maximization of efficiency is a balance between two extremes. Managed correctly, it reduces costs, waste, and duplication. The greater the efficiency, the more successful organization becomes.The organizations today attempt to be more customer-responsive than efficient in this sense, and the notion of such an ordered and impersonal efficiency has lost favor in an era when creativity and innovation are valued as a competitive advantage. A goal of media marketing that is aimed at minimizing advertising expenses incurred while maximizing product publici ty to a target market in terms of breadth and frequency of exposure. Maximizing cost efficiency in a marketing campaign is highly desirable for a business since the greatest product exposure is achieved for the least amount of financial investment.Importance of cost efficiency The importance of cost efficiency programs within a company cannot be overstated. Companies that are losing money, need to increase profits, or must become more competitive need to cut expenses in order to succeed. Knowing how to implement effective cost reduction strategies can be the determining factor in the survival of a business. Keeping a Competitive Advantage A good manager understands the importance of cost reduction to the health of a company. Bloated expense accounts can eat up profits quickly.A cost efficiency plan is one that focuses on lowering costs in every business activity. The activities vary by type of business but the concept of cost reduction and its efficiency does not vary. The importanc e of cost reduction and efficiency plans is related to the most common reasons why expenses must be cut in a business. †¢ Need for increased profits †¢ Improved competitive standing †¢ Preserve company resources †¢ Reduce waste †¢ Improved productivity It is not easy to compete in the market today.Rising prices, shifting fuel rates, global competition, varying labor rates around the world, and spiraling health insurance costs have made cost control a moving target. Sometimes it seems that a company gets one set of expenses under control, and in the meantime, another area of the company begins experiencing cost overruns. It is a never ending battle to maintain company profitability. Cost efficiency can be achieved utilizing different approaches. A company can: †¢ Reduce existing expenses †¢ Eliminate unnecessary expenses Modify business strategies which affect the types of business expenses †¢ Replace higher expenses with lower expenses for sam e items The importance of cost efficiency strategies cannot be understated, especially when a company is struggling to maintain profitability. Areas that can be reviewed for expense reductions include the following. †¢ Telecommunications †¢ Leases †¢ Materials †¢ Office supplies †¢ Maintenance costs †¢ Rent †¢ Utilities When a company must generate more cash as fast as possible, management will have to decide which costs can be most effectively reduced.If the reduction is needed quickly, expenses cut first will normally be those that are not fixed or directly tied to production. It is not a good idea to drastically reduce expenses that produce the company product or service without careful evaluation. If your company understands the importance of cost efficiency as a tool to increase profitability, the company will have a much better chance of remaining profitable no matter what stage of the economic cycle is occurring. That is because cost efficie ncy is an effective tool that can be responsive to a company's need. Managing expenses is just as important as managing revenue.A regular review of costs can prevent a company from wasting money resulting from ‘bad habits'. No matter whether it is good times or bad, the importance of cost efficiency strategies never changes. Consequences of cost inefficiencies The theory of inefficiency states that the distribution of resources between alternatives does not fit with consumer taste (perceptions of costs and benefits). For example, a company may have the lowest costs in â€Å"productive† terms, but the result may be inefficient in allocative terms because the â€Å"true† or social cost exceeds the price that consumers are willing to pay for an extra unit of the product.This is true, for example, if the firm produces pollution (see also external cost). Consumers would prefer that the firm and its competitors produce less of the product and charge a higher price, to internalize the external cost. Cost plays an important role in running of the business. Unfortunately, a business or a firm or an organization faces many problems due to improper use of cash held with them. In other word, it is also said as facing the consequences of cost inefficiency.Organizations have different range of problems than their larger counterparts, due to their inability to enjoy some of the same advantages in the marketplace. Most of these problems are due to revenue and cash-on-hand availability when the bills come due. But confronting these obstacles before they become a headache can help you to prevent them from becoming a major issue for your company through the study of cost efficiency. Following are the consequences faced by an organization:- Cash Flow The most important issue to any small business entrepreneur is cash flow.It does not help a small business to have a profitable upcoming quarter already signed on the dotted line, if the payroll for this Friday do es not have sufficient funds to pay your employees. Businesses which book revenue in advance, but do not realize the income for a period of months afterwards, must be especially careful with this timing. The future ledger may be showing nothing but green, but if the cash-on-hand dips into the red, a crisis may be coming sooner than your revenue can forestall it. Maintain lines of credit sufficient to keep your cash flow healthy as necessary, and keep a rainy day account if possible.Unforeseen Expenses Start-up companies and small businesses frequently run close to the bone and may be profitable only so long as unplanned events never occur. A retail store which clears $150,000 per year after expenses may seem to be in good shape, until a slip-and-fall lawsuit against the store awards the plaintiff $1. 3 million and there is no insurance coverage. Even smaller expenses, such as a one-time government levy on all businesses in a region, or a rise in the cost of goods, can cause a major change in the bottom line.Use your available credit when you need to tide over your short-term cash crunch, but keep a close eye on your long-term profitability to ensure that your overall liquidity is not threatened by the change in costs. Catastrophic Change A large corporation will probably survive the loss of a key executive to a debilitating injury or death, but these things frequently close small businesses when that person represents a large chunk of the available labor force–especially when the entrepreneur herself is that person. Likewise, a natural disaster or other major disruption can close a business for weeks or months.Whenever possible, have cash on hand and business policies to ensure that you will be able to reopen as soon as possible, or wether the temporary loss of a key employee, and then check your business plan to see if any of your prior assumptions have been changed by the new circumstances Once the organization identifies the sources of waste, and how much it is costing business, it should look at the most cost-effective way to reduce it. It's a good idea to focus initially on quick wins – things you can do immediately that will reduce waste almost instantly. You might also want to consider uick fixes – putting in place a temporary solution to a problem to give you time to design a more permanent answer. It is essential to give priority to cost improvements, as making a change to eliminate a problem might not always be cost-effective. The main focus should be on dealing with those problems which are most costly to the business because it will have the biggest impact on your profits. A case study Google purchase Motorola mobility About the Deal The Google, online giant on 15 August, 2011 made an announcement to buy Motorola Mobility, a maker of handsets and other electronic devices.Google Management Agreed to buy Motorola Mobility for $ 12. 5 billion. This is the largest  Ã‚  Ã‚   surprising acquisition by Google paying a premium of 63% to the 12th August, 2011 closing price ($40. 00 per share) of Motorola Mobility. The deal not only treated as a surprise, it will have a big impact on the mobile industry too. Motorola shareholders will get $40 a share in cash, the companies said in a statement today. That’s 63 percent more than Motorola Mobility’s closing price on the New York Stock Exchange on Aug. 12. Both boards have approved the takeover.This is a Vertical Merger (which companies at different places in a chain of products join together). Here, Hardware Client (Motorola) acquired by the Software Client (Google) Google expects to complete the transaction by early 2012. As recently as March, the deal was slowed to a crawl when the Chinese government expanded its investigation of the purchase. China finally cleared the deal this past weekend. Google had received approval for the deal from both the U. S. Department of Justice and the European Commission in February. The purchase also was approved by officials in Israel and Taiwan, leaving China as the last holdout.The purchase will help Google defend itself against various patent infringement lawsuits over the Android operating system, since Motorola has one of the smart-phone industry's largest patent libraries. Page also hailed the purchase as something that will allow Google to gain a bigger foothold in the mobile market. A Google phone running Android could be very marketable not only to consumers but to IT departments that need to outfit workers with mobile devices. Basically, owning both the handset hardware and the operating system could be a powerful combination that could drive Android adoption.Google has been working to expand its business into other hardware ventures. With Motorola, Google may be better able to push its way into the home entertainment market with its Google TV platform. In addition to being a world-renowned smart-phone maker, Motorola also is a major player in the home set-top b ox sector. Why Google plans to buy Motorola mobility? â€Å"Google is moving into hardware, which is very different from what they've done all along,† said Darren Hayes, a computer science professor at Pace University. â€Å"It's very difficult for a company to be able to be a successful software and hardware company.It worked for Apple to be in the hardware and software industries, but not all companies have been that successful. † Google's move toward Apple's close management of software and hardware signals a departure from its previous path and suggests Google may be dissatisfied with its current software licensing arrangements, which have led to the proliferation, but also fragmentation, of its Android mobile operating system. â€Å"Google is moving into hardware, which is very different from what they've done all along,† said Darren Hayes, a computer science professor at Pace University. It's very difficult for a company to be able to be a successful softw are and hardware company. It worked for Apple to be in the hardware and software industries, but not all companies have been that successful. † Google's move toward Apple's close management of software and hardware signals a departure from its previous path and suggests Google may be dissatisfied with its current software licensing arrangements, which have led to the proliferation, but also fragmentation, of its Android mobile operating system.Most directly, the deal marks a defensive maneuver in the high-stakes patent war that has pitted the world's largest technology companies against one another in dozens of drawn-out intellectual property (IP) disputes. Google CEO Larry Page framed the acquisition as a means to protect Google's Android mobile operating system against â€Å"anti-competitive threats† by shoring up his company's arsenal of patents.Analysts agree that Motorola's 17,000 patents and 7,500 patent applications are a major win for Google, which lacks a robus t portfolio of wireless patents relative to more established players and has been vulnerable to lawsuits from the likes of Apple, Microsoft and Oracle. Over forty lawsuits have been filed against Android, and ongoing patent disputes threaten to impose licensing fees on the software Google has given away to phone manufacturers for free, potentially jeopardizing Android's explosive growth. Google is a relatively new entrant in the mobile space and does not have a lot of mobile IP, so anything it can do to build up its IP in the wireless space will help reduce potential risk to the company from lawsuits in the future,† said Ovum analyst Nick Dillon. â€Å"If you look at Motorola's history and role in pioneering mobile communications from the very start, you'll see they have some really key patents that will be useful to Google. † Yet patents are only part of the story, experts say. The acquisition suggests that Google sees itself as unable to adequately compete in the mobi lity market without its own handset manufacturer.Google's bet is that having greater control over smartphone software and hardware will help it move beyond the desktop and beyond search. Owning Motorola will allow Google, more than ever before, to create mobile devices that satisfy the web giant's vision for what cellphones and tablets should be able to do. A new breed of Motorola smart-phones could be designed from the ground up to integrate Google products at every turn, from featuring the Google-plus social network to adding near field communication chips that allow cell-phones to be substituted for credit cards via Google Wallet.Fundamentally, Motorola offers Google a bridge from the digital to the physical world, and with it, a means of gaining valuable information about its users, such as their locations or what applications they use the most. Though Google said that it will continue to license its Android software, its mobile strategy will cease being at the mercy of third-pa rty handset manufacturers like HTC and Samsung. Instead, Google will able to dictate the price, distribution and features of its own line of devices. Google also stands to bolster its efforts to gain inroads into the living room by preading to TVs. Google TV, which was unveiled lat year but was unable to gain much traction, may stand a better chance when paired with Motorola's set-top box offerings. Until now, Google has been essentially hands off when it comes to hardware: it has offered its Android software to manufacturers at zero cost, without a having a say in the form of the phones Android will power. This disruptive and unorthodox strategy has allowed Google to gain enormous market share in very little time, overtaking Apple to claim 48 percent of the global smart-phone market, according to Canalys.To some extent, quality has been sacrificed for quantity as Android has expanded to more than 150 million devices made by more than thirty different manufacturers. Google frequentl y updates its Android software, but app developers, manufacturers and carriers are not always able to keep up, resulting in a proliferation of different versions of the Android operating system offering a range of experiences for users. Depending on Google's relationship with the handset manufacturer, or the manufacturer's approach to upgrades, a consumer could purchase a smart-phone running outdated software, straight out of the box.Not all Android apps perform equally on different versions of the software, an issue that has been a source of frustration for users and developers alike. Google's new approach — controlling the smart-phone experience from end-to-end — mirrors the vertical-integration strategy Apple has pursed with spectacular success, but one that has lately been a bust for the likes of Nokia and Research in Motion. Nokia, for example, recently ceded its top spot as the world's largest smart-phone vendor to Apple and announced it would retire its Symbian operating system in favor of Microsoft's Windows Phone software.Google is staking billions on its ability to successfully control both the software and hardware components of its company's devices — all while not alienating its partners, who have been instrumental in Android's rise and with whom Google will directly compete once the Motorola acquisition is complete. â€Å"Google has had history of picking favorites, but it's never directly competed with manufacturers,† said Ovum analyst Dillon. â€Å"Manufacturers have come out with statements of support. But what's said in public in one thing, and what's said behind closed doors is another. Benefits of the deal †¢ Google and Motorola Mobility together will accelerate innovation and choice in mobile computing. Consumers will get better phones at lower prices. †¢ Motorola Mobility’s patent portfolio will help protect the Android ecosystem. Android, which is open-source software, is vital to competition in the mobile device space, ensuring hardware manufacturers, mobile phone carriers, applications developers and consumers all have choice. †¢ The purchase of Motorola Mobility by Google has excited some technophiles and alarmed others.The first point of concern, at least from the customer's perspective, is whether or not Motorola's Android smart-phone platform would become the exclusive domain of Google customers. The acquisition certainly puts Android operating systems on better footing as they compete against Apple's iPhone, and with Google's capital resources, more money is sure to pour into Android technology. Following are some reasons why the Google-Motorola deal makes sense: Integration may be all that matters in the wireless industry.Apple’s hardware-software-ecosystem business model brings better profit margins, can grab market share and seems to delight consumers. Google’s Android effort could be a bit like herding cats. The larger question is whether t he vertically integrated model is the only one that works in the wireless industry. Google lands its patent treasure trove. If you consider that Google was going to pay nearly $4 billion for Nortel’s 6,000 wireless patents, $12. 5 billion for Motorola Mobility doesn’t look like a big chunk of change. With Motorola Mobility’s patents, Google can fend off lawsuits.In other words, Google builds out its patent portfolio. On a conference call, Page called out patents as a big reason for the Motorola Mobility acquisition. Google gets a TV play. While Google’s Motorola acquisition primarily revolves around wireless devices, there’s a significant living room play here. Why? Motorola Mobility has a significant set-top box business. In the cable box world, there are two players: Cisco and Motorola Mobility, which is the leader. Google will get significant relationships with cable providers and give Android more of a foothold.There’s a good chance that Google can keep hardware partners in the fold—for now. Page reiterated that Google will keep Android open source and work with partners such as HTC and Samsung. Also keep in mind that this Google-Motorola deal could win it some goodwill with hardware partners. Motorola was thinking about suing other Android hardware makers over patents. Google’s acquisition would put an end to that. The deal forces Microsoft’s hand. When it comes to the art of war, Google and Motorola force Microsoft’s hand a bit.With the Google-Motorola deal, Page is basically acknowledging that there’s no money in third-party operating systems in the mobile space. The upshot: Mobile software players need a hardware component. As a result, Microsoft may be forced to acquire a hardware player. Research in Motion and Nokia are prime takeover candidates. In any case, Microsoft will be distracted by a big acquisition. And Android boxes in Nokia and RIM. With Motorola, which has some enterprise credibility and Android innovations, Google can enter the enterprise easier.As a result, RIM increasingly looks like the odd man out. Nokia is already under fire as it waits for Windows Phone 7 to gain traction. RIM is betting on QNX as an operating system. Google is indicating that the wireless market is a two-platform race. And those two horses are going to be Android and iOS. Challenges of the deal: Google acquisitions may lead to serious channel conflict, it will lead to a direct competition with other hardware partners like Samsung, HTC etc. , and the hardware manufacturing is a very different area with  Google’s core business.The deal raises the following major challenges 1. HTC  and Samsung, two of the leading  Android-based smart-phone makers, feel about the fact that their â€Å"partner†Ã‚  Google  is now competing directly with them for hardware sales. 2. Need to change the perceptions of the Investors that are not perceived the deal in a p ositive way. 3. Management Cultures of Software and hardware companies are almost different it is one of the challenge for the Google while framing the policies that would not reach to management destructions or management failures 4.By this Acquisition Google employee strength would increase by 19000 which eventually decrease the profits of the business. It’s question to the management in effective utilization of man power in value generation. Valuation of the Deal |Swap ratio determination using market value method | |Particulars |Google Motorola | |Market capital |1,71,94,00,00,000 |11,21,00,00,000 | |Equity |46,24,10,00,000 |1,73,20,00,000 | |Market capitalization of the merged entity |1,83,15,00,00,000 | |Share of google |93. 8% | | |Share of mmi | |6. 12% | |Post merger equity of google | |49,25,57,81,959 | |Post merger equity of mmi | |3,01,47,81,959 | |Hence, 1 equity share of google is equal to | |11. 6019003 | |11. 56 of mmi | | | |Market price at the time of de al (august 12) |563. 77 |24. 47 | |Additional premium paid to mmi |280. 8921499 |49. 82% | By this Market Valuation Method this deal is Viable for Google at a premium of 50% Why is Google willing to pay a 63% premium?Google is expecting the following benefits from MMI by this Acquisition. Operational Benefits †¢ Google can Access all the product lines of MMI cell phone, set-top boxes and tablet which are having a very good market share Android software has made considerable inroads in the smartphone market with 150 million devices and 550,000 activations a day. †¢ Now, Google can compete with Global Leader like APPLE in future in hardware and software industry Accounting Benefits †¢ Tax benefit:   Acquiring loss making company by a profit making companyGoogle can make a tax advantage each year till 2019 can utilize the losses. Synergy Expectations: Fragmentation and a Better The Android market is currently heavily fragmented but the developers facing problem for d esigning the applications by this synergy Google will solve this problem by building a better Android OS with a lot of applications. Diversification and Google Vallet: Despite being a little over a decade old Google maintained the same portfolio now this deal brings new business focus hardware products, mobile computing. Invasion of Living RoomThe Google TV user interface that was launched earlier in May, 2011and Motorola is a strong player in the set-top box and home devices market this bid can expand presence of Google TV products into the living room. Patent The mobile computing industry has become a hotbed for patent disputes and thrust in the patent war. Google having about 1,000-odd patents this acquisition gives access to more than 17,000 patents and 7,000 pending patents held by Motorola. Google will now be able to successfully defend itself against a barrage of patent lawsuits filed by Apple, Microsoft and other rivals Hardware and Software synergy (Vertical Integration):Th is results in product efficiency and cost efficiency. Apple secret to become No. 1 Technology Company Integrating hardware and software and the results are iPhone, iPad, and iPod – devices that have become leaders in their respective market segments. Views about the Deal Management View: †¢ Larry Page, CEO of Google, said, â€Å"I look forward to welcoming Motorolans to our family of Googlers. † †¢ Mr. Page said I was â€Å"confident this deal will be approved† by regulators it tremendously beneficial to consumers,† †¢ For consumers, Once Motorola is owned by Google the handset maker could more aggressively ncorporate a technology called Near Field Communications (NFC) that is used for mobile payments and is supported by a version of Google's Android called Gingerbread. †¢ Investors Perception about the Deal †¢ Google: This Adventurous move in entirely different kind of business, one that could destroy its partnerships (and margins ) in one of its most important new Business Lines. Early Investors not perceived the deal in a positive way it results Google stock has gotten smacked in the pre-market. Another fact that could be worrying investors is that the Google-Motorola deal includes a $2. billion reverse break-up fee. †¢ MMI: The Internal Intention of MMI to get separated from its parent company is to get out in a better price and by showing its market growth among its products it got a chance to exit in a premium price leads to huge hike in the stock prices. The official SEC report outlines how Google bid against themselves and paid $4 billion more than the initial high-end target for bidding. The Self-Bidding War In July, Google started by floating the idea of buying Motorola for a high-$20s, low-$30s (per share) figure. On August 1st, an official bid of $30. 0 per share was made. Over the course of the next week and a half, however, Google would make two additional bids – $37. 00 and $40. 00 p er share – representing a full 33 percent increase from their initial offer, or $4 billion extra in total spent. How did Google get into a bidding war when no one else was bidding? It started before Google even made its initial offer. Google's Andy Rubin first approached Motorola in July, looking to purchase the company's patent portfolio. This attempt to expand mobile patent assets stemmed from a failed attempt to acquire Nortel's patent portfolio in April.However, Motorola CEO Sanjay Jha indicated that â€Å"that it could be problematic for Motorola Mobility to continue as a stand-alone entity if it sold a large portion of its patent portfolio,† according to the SEC filing. This prompted Google to look at buying the whole company rather than just its patents. Google then floated a low-$30s bid as an initial cap. On August 1, Google â€Å"sent a letter to the Motorola Mobility Board of Directors proposing an acquisition of Motorola Mobility by Google for $30. 00 in c ash per share. † Motorola has approximately 299 million shares currently, so that bid equated to $9 billion.In response, Motorola brought on Quatalyst Partners, an independent investment bank. It was a Quatalyst representative who contacted Google on August 5 and suggested a bid of $43. 50 per share – or a total bid of approximately $13 billion total, according to  the New York Times. Google upped their bid to $37. 00 per share ($11 billion), but continued to push for a fast and confidential buy. Motorola and Quatalyst leveraged Google's intensity by declining the second bid and suggesting â€Å"a proposed price of $40. 50 or higher. † Google made the offer of $40. 00 per share, or $11. 96 billion.Added to the additional options and awards (approximately 29 million shares with alternate sources or pricing), we come to $12. 5 billion – our final figure. Did Google Overpay? From the moment the $12. 5 billion figure was released, analysts called the purchas e an inflated buy, and the realization that Google's initial cap would have been would have been closer to $9. 4 billion just affirmed that notion. After all, $40. 00 per share was a 63 percent increase when compared with Motorola's last after-market trading value. But Google wasn't just buying a company. More than anything, Google was buying patent protection.In the world of mobile, manufacturers are already signing patent licenses with Microsoft that cost $5 to $12 per unit, fighting battles against Apple, and Google themselves are involved in their biggest lawsuit yet with Oracle. In total, these lawsuits and licensing fees may cost Google and their partners billions of dollars, which explains why Google is willing to pay an inflated price. Google was also buying Motorola's silence: They didn't want to get involved in a bidding war with competitors who could then use Motorola's patents against Android. By bidding against themselves, they removed the incentive to open the floor to public bids.It was an expensive move, but one that offered important legal protections and access to hardware technology in a key industry. Suggestions: †¢ Key factors that we feel need to implement in order to make this deal successful Google need to strengthen the following segments that creates synergy in value positioning. †¢ Management Efficiency: Focus on stretegy that make effective use of newly added 19000 manpower †¢ Patent Efficiency: First 17000 and plus remaining 7500 patents been used in new technology creation need by the market space †¢ Cost Efficiency: Strict Implementation of control mechanisms over the business. Profit Maximization: This was the ultimate objective of this acquisition if Google implemented all the strategies as per mentioned in this case it has more possibility to reduce the chances of failure of the deal. Can achieve its targeted mile stone Conclusion The concept of saving money by making a product or performing an activity in a better way is nothing but cost efficiency. So with the help of this project we can conclude that cost efficiency helps in increasing profits of the business organization.Cost efficiency improves the standard of an organization and makes it more competitive in today’s business world. Most importantly, with the help of this theory of cost efficiency a company can preserve its resources and more obviously can use it in its future. Cost efficiency also helps in reducing wastage in organization. This leads to earning of more profit and less cost expenses. On the other hand, a business or a firm or an organization faces many problems due to improper use of cash held with them. In other word, it is also said as facing the consequences of cost inefficiency.Organizations have different range of problems than their larger counterparts, due to their inability to enjoy some of the same advantages in the marketplace. Most of these problems are due to revenue and cash-on-hand availabilit y when the bills come due. But confronting these obstacles before they become a headache can help you to prevent them from becoming a major issue for your company through the study of cost efficiency. In case of Google purchasing Motorola mobility Huge Experts have been watching the current scenario what will be the Google’s next step, how efficiently will manage this Hardware product line.How effectively use these synergies if this synergy became successful Google will reach to the sudden highs in a short span of time can became the competitor to the Market leader Apple. Now, Google can compete with Global Leader like APPLE in future in hardware and software industry. Well, up till now Google have faced less consequences as the employees of the Google Inc. have being studying cost expenses and try to reserve its resources and patents. Bebliography and webliography List of website:- www. mba. com www. marketing. about. com www. ehow. com www. ebrd. com

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Fool Chapter 5

FIVE PITY THE FOOL Kent banished, Cordelia disinherited, the king having given away his property and power, but most important, my home, the White Tower; the two older sisters insulted by Kent, the dukes ready to cut my throat, well – getting a laugh might be a challenge. Royal succession, it seemed, would not be a prudent subject to broach, and I was lost for a transition to slapstick or pantomime after Lear's high drama, so Drool was but a millstone on comedy's neck. I juggled apples and sang a little song about monkeys while I pondered the problem. The king was, of late, leaning decidedly pagan, while the elder sisters favored the Church. Gloucester and Edgar were devout to the Roman pantheon, and Cordelia, well, she thought the whole lot was shit and England should have her own church with women in the clergy. Quaint. So the high-minded comedy of religious satire it would be†¦ I tossed my apples around the table and said, â€Å"Two popes are shagging a camel behind a mosque, when this Saracen comes up – â€Å" â€Å"There is only one, true pope!† shouted Cornwall, great tower of malignant smegma that he is. â€Å"It's a jest, you wanker,† said I. â€Å"Suspend fucking disbelief for a bit, would you?† He was right, in a way (although not for the purpose of the camel bit). For the last year there had only been one pope, in the holy city of Amsterdam. But for the prior fifty years there had been two popes, the Retail Pope and the Discount Pope. After the Thirteenth Holy Crusade, when it was decided that to avoid future strife, the birthplace of Jesus would be moved to a different city every four years, holy shrines lost their geographical importance. There arose a great price war in the Church, with shrines offering pilgrims dispensation at varying competitive rates. Now there didn't need to be a miracle declared on the spot; anywhere could basically be declared a holy site, and often was. Lourdes would still sell dispensation coupons with the healing waters – but also some bloke in Puddinghoe could plant some pansies and hawk, â€Å"Jesus had a wee right on this very spot when he was a lad – two pennies and a spliff of Cardiff chronic ‘ill get you out o' purgat ory for an eon, mate.† Soon a whole guild of low-priced shrine keepers around Europe named their own Pope – Boldface the Relatively Shameless, Discount Pope of Prague. The price war was on. If the Dutch pope would give you a hundred years out of purgatory for a shilling and a ferryman's ticket, the Discount Pope would let you out for two hundred years and send you home with the femur of a minor saint and a splinter of the True Cross. The Retail Pope would offer cheesy bacon toppings on the Host with communion and the Discount Pope would counter with topless-nun night for midnight mass. It came to a head, though, when St. Matthew appeared in a vision to the Retail Pope, telling him that the faithful were more interested in the quality of their religious experience, not just the quantity. Thus inspired, the Retail Pope moved Christmas to June when the weather wasn't so shit for shopping, and the Discount Pope, not realizing the game had changed, responded by forgiving hell altogether for anyone who gave a priest a hand job. Without hell, there was no fear, and without fear, there was no further need for the Church to supply redemption, and more important, no means for the Church to modify behavior. The Discount faithful defected in droves, either to the Retail branch of the Church, or to a dozen different pagan sects. Why not get pissed and dance naked around a pole all Sabbath if the worst of it was a rash on the naughty bits and the dropping of the odd bastard now and then? Pope Boldface was burned in a wicker man the next Beltane and cats shat in his ashes. So, yes, a two-pope joke was untimely, but fuck all, it was dire times, and I sallied forth, for a bit: â€Å"So the second pope says, ‘Your sister? I thought she was kosher?'† And no one laughed. Cordelia rolled her eyes and made a raspberry sound. The pathetic one-trumpet fanfare dribbled, the great doors were thrown open, and France and Burgundy ponced[20] into the hall followed by the bastard Edmund. â€Å"Silence, fool,† commanded Lear, with great superfluity. â€Å"Hail, Burgundy, hail, France.† â€Å"Hail, Edmund the bloody bastard!† said I. Lear ignored me and motioned for France and Burgundy to come before him. They were both fit, taller than me but not tall, a few years south of thirty. Burgundy had dark hair and the sharp features of a Roman. France, sandy hair and softer features. Each wore sword and dagger that I doubted had been ever drawn but for ceremony. Fucking frogs. â€Å"Lord Burgundy,† said Lear, â€Å"you have rivaled for the hand of our youngest daughter. What dowry do you require for her?† â€Å"No less than your highness has offered,† said the dark poofter. â€Å"Alas, that is no more, good Burgundy. What we offered, was offered when she was dear to us. Now she has roused our anger and betrayed our love and her dowry is nothing. If you want her as she is there, take her, but there will be no dowry.† Burgundy was stunned. He backed away, nearly stepping on France's feet. â€Å"I'm sorry, then, sir, but I must tend to property and power in my choice of duchess.† â€Å"She shall have neither,† said Lear. â€Å"So be it,† said Burgundy. He nodded, bowed, and stepped back. â€Å"I am sorry, Cordelia.† â€Å"No worry, sir,† said the princess. â€Å"If Burgundy's heart is wed only to property and power, then it could never be to me truly. Peace be with you.† I breathed half a sigh of relief. We might be driven from our home, but if Cordelia was driven out with us – â€Å"I'll take her!† said Edgar. â€Å"You will not, you blubbering, beetle-browed, dog-buggering dolt!† I may have accidentally exclaimed. â€Å"You will not,† said Gloucester, pushing his son back into his seat. â€Å"Well, I will have her,† said the Prince of France. â€Å"For she is a dowry in herself.† â€Å"Oh for fuck's sake!† â€Å"Pocket, that's enough,† said the king. â€Å"Guard, take him outside and hold him until our will is done.† Two yeomen stepped up behind me and seized me under the armpits. I heard Drool moan and looked over to see him cowering behind a column. This had never happened before – nothing like it. I was the all-licensed fool! I of all people could speak truth to power – I am chief cheeky monkey to the King of Bloody Britain! â€Å"You don't know what you're getting into, France. Have you seen her feet? Or perhaps that is your game, put her to work in the vineyards crushing wine grapes. Majesty, the poofter means to force servitude on her, mark my words.† But no one heard the last of it, the yeomen had dragged me from the room and held me in the hall outside. I sought to brain one with Jones but he caught the puppet stick and tucked him in his belt at the small of his back. â€Å"Sorry, Pocket,† said Curan, the captain of the guard, a grizzled bear in chain mail who held me by my right arm. â€Å"‘Twas a direct order, and you were fast cutting your throat with your own tongue.† â€Å"Not me,† said I. â€Å"He wouldn't hurt me.† â€Å"I'd have said he'd not banish his best friend or disown his favorite daughter before this night. Hanging a fool's an easy leap, lad.† â€Å"Aye,† said I. â€Å"You're right. Let me go, then.† â€Å"Not until the king's business is done,† said the old yeoman. The doors came open, fanfare trickled anemic through the portal, and out came the Prince of France, on his arm, Cordelia, radiant and wearing a grim smile. I could see her jaw clenched, but she relaxed when she saw me and some of the fire of anger left her eyes. â€Å"So, you're off with the frog Prince?† said I. France laughed at that, bloody buggering French fuck that he is. Is there anything so irritating as a noble who actually behaves nobly? â€Å"Yes, I am leaving, Pocket, but there is one thing you must always remember and never forget – â€Å" â€Å"Both at once?† â€Å"Shut up!† â€Å"Aye, milady.† â€Å"You must always remember, and you must never forget, that while you are the Black Fool, the dark fool, the Royal Fool, the all-licensed fool, and the King's Fool, you were not brought here to be those things. You were brought here to please me. Me! So when you put your titles aside, a fool still shall there reside, and now and forever, you are my fool.† â€Å"Oh my, you are going to do well in France – they hold unpleasantness to be a virtue.† â€Å"Mine!† â€Å"Now and forever, milady.† â€Å"You may kiss my hand, fool.† The yeoman released me and I bent to take her hand. She pulled it away, and turned, her gown fanning out around her as she walked away. â€Å"Sorry, having you on.† I smiled into the floor. â€Å"You bitch.† â€Å"I'll miss you, Pocket,† she said over her shoulder, and she hurried down the corridor. â€Å"Take me with you. Take us both with you. France, you could use a brilliant fool and a great lumbering bag of flatulence like Drool, couldn't you?† The prince shook his head, entirely too much pity in his eyes for my tastes. â€Å"You are Lear's fool, with Lear you shall stay.† â€Å"That's not what your wife just said.† â€Å"She will learn,† said the prince. He turned on his heel and followed Cordelia down the corridor. I started after them but the captain yanked me back by the arm. â€Å"Let her go, lad.† Next out of the hall came the sisters and their husbands. Before I could say anything the captain had clamped his hand over my mouth and was lifting me off my feet as I kicked. Cornwall made as to draw his dagger, but Regan pulled him away. â€Å"You've just won a kingdom, my duke, killing vermin is a servant's task. Leave the bitter fool stew in his own bile.† She wanted me. It was clear. Goneril would not look me in the eye, but hurried past, and her husband, Albany, just shook his head as he walked by. A hundred brilliant witticisms died suffocating on the captain's heavy glove. Thus muted, I pumped my codpiece at the duke and tried to force a fart, but my bum trumpet could find no note. As if the gods had sent down a dim and gaseous avatar to help me, Drool came next through the door, walking rather more straight than was his habit. Then I saw that someone had looped a rope around his neck, the noose fixed to a spear whose point was almost piercing Drool's throat. Edmund stepped into the corridor holding the other end of the spear, two men at arms flanking him. â€Å"The captain havin' a laugh with you, then, Pocket?† said Drool, innocent of his peril. The captain dropped me to my feet then, but held my shoulder to keep me from going at Edmund, whose father and brother passed behind him. â€Å"You were right, Pocket,† said Edmund, poking Drool a bit with the spear for emphasis. â€Å"Killing you would be enough to cement my unfavorable position forever, but a hostage – there's a mute I can use. I so enjoyed your performance in there that I prevailed upon the king to provide me with a fool of my own, and look at his gift. He'll be coming to Gloucester with us to assure that you don't forget your promise.† â€Å"You don't need the spear, bastard. He'll go if I ask him.† â€Å"Are we going on holiday, Pocket?† asked Drool, blood beginning to trickle down his neck then. I approached the giant. â€Å"No, lad,† said I. â€Å"You're going to go with the bastard here. Do as he says.† I turned to the captain. â€Å"Give me your knife.† The captain eyed Edmund and the men at arms beside him, who had hands on hilts. â€Å"I don't know, Pocket – â€Å" â€Å"Give me your bloody knife!† I whirled, pulled the knife from the captain's belt, and before the men at arms could draw I'd cut the rope around Drool's neck and pushed Edmund's spear aside. â€Å"You don't need the spear, bastard.† I handed the captain his knife and motioned for Drool to bend down so we were eye-to-eye. â€Å"I want you to go with Edmund and don't give him any trouble, you understand?† â€Å"Aye. You ain't comin'?† â€Å"I'll be along, I'll be along. I've business at the White Tower first.† â€Å"Shagging to be done?† Drool nodded so enthusiastically you could nearly hear his tiny brain rattling around his gourd. â€Å"I'll be helping, right?† â€Å"No, lad, but you'll have your own castle. You'll be the proper fool, won't you? There'll be all kinds of hiding and listening, Drool, do you understand what I'm saying, lad?† I winked, hoping against hope that the git would get my meaning. â€Å"Will there be heinous fuckery, Pocket?† â€Å"Aye, I think you can count on it.† â€Å"Smashing!† Drool clapped his hands and danced a little jig then, chanting, â€Å"Heinous fuckery most foul, heinous fuckery most foul – â€Å" I looked to Edmund. â€Å"You've my word, bastard. But you've also my word that if any harm comes to the Natural, I'll see to it that ghosts ride you into your grave.† A flash of fear showed in Edmund's eye then, but he fought it down and affected his usual swaggering smirk. â€Å"His life is on your word, little man.† The bastard turned and strutted down the corridor. Drool looked back, a big tear welling in his eye as he realized what was happening. I waved him on. â€Å"I'd have taken the other two if you'd dirked him,† said Curan. The other guard nodded in agreement. â€Å"Evil bastard was asking for it.† â€Å"Well, now you fucking tell me,† said I. Another guard hurried out of the hall then, and seeing it was only the fool with his captain, reported, â€Å"Captain, the king's food taster. He's dead, sir.† Three friends had I.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Staples’ “Black Men and Public Spaces” Strays Only Slightly

RuthAnn Milbert Instructor: Lynne Lerych May 4, 2010 English 101 Essay Review #2 Staples’ â€Å"Black Men and Public Spaces† Strays Only Slightly Brent Staples’ â€Å"Black Men and Public Spaces† narrative is about his realization of the fear that black men instill in persons of non color and his attempts at lessening that fear. Staples’ essay begins him recalling a time where a white woman ran from him simply because he was black. He continues to explain that his intentions weren’t to cause her harm but had just happened to be walking behind her since he couldn’t sleep. Staples refers to publications by Norman Podhoretz and Edward Hoagland who had expressed their views on the same type of fear the woman who ran from him had experienced and although the fear was factually founded it didn’t give much comfort to Staples. Staples explains how black youths, mostly men, were more likely intimidate people because of their upbringing and tells how this generalization led to times where he was judged by color alone and thought to be a threat. After Staples realizes and begins to understand the reasons behind this fear he began taking measures to make himself appear less threatening and by doing so he hoped to lessen the public fear of him. Staples’ essay definitely keeps the readers interest even if slightly straying from his thesis. Staples does a very nice job of keeping site of his main topic from the title to the conclusion only deviating slightly to give more background on the reasoning behind why black men tended to use the power of intimidation starting from birth. His was objective, gave great expert opinions, and maintained a good flow throughout the essay. His thoughts of how he could lessen the publics fear of him at the end of the essay didn’t have much evidence to prove that his ideas were effective aside from his own personal experience where some people seemed to react more kindly towards him then in the past. Factors such as time passing and civil rights seem just as likely to be the reason for the publics fear lessening as Staples’ theory on whistling. Staples Black Men and Public Spaces Strays Only Slightly Racism has been prevalent in the United States since the first European explorers arrived at our shores. Law reforms since that time have continuously changed almost all of society; however, â€Å"public schooling is the context in which desegregation has attained its most salient position as a national issue† (Foner and Garraty). America could reduce the amount of racial discrimination in our public high schools by encouraging everyone to pursue using one main dialect because it would make one less thing that fuels the racism in some people. Asking people (especially adolescents) to go out of their way to try and make things easier for others that they may not even know might seem like an enormous request at first, but the simplicity of it could show positive results much faster then society has ever thought possible. Racism is generally in reaction to someone's skin color or race so the way someone speaks isn't usually the focus of discussions on the matter. Lets say there was a man named, Bob. Bob was a white man from Missouri and had lost his sight over the years. One day a new mailman, a black man, cheerfully greeted Bob on his porch, but was instantly shouted at to leave the property. Although Bob was blind at that point, the way in which the mailman spoke had told Bob he was black. Was this fair? Honestly, yes and no. No, it was wrong for Bob to be racist in the first place and shouldn't assume every human that spoke as the mailman did was a person of colors. And yes, it is a pretty fair deduction Bob made due to the fact that the majority of people with that dialect were persons of color. If high school kids were all able to speak in the same manner as each other then the audible line that separates them would be greatly diminished. With that massive factor out of play, skin color becomes pretty much the sole focus of racism. If people only have one reason why they dislike or hate a group of people it weakens their resolve to continue the fight. In the Jena Six case there was a massive backing of the defendants because they were lead to believe that a great civil injustice had been done. Then the truth that the defendants had been lying came to light and â€Å"the fact remains that the Jena Six case climbed to its rickety position as a national symbol of racial injustice largely because a lot of people, some professional activists and many members of the press, wanted it to do so† (Allen). Benjamin Dowling-Sendor, an authority on school law, is an assistant appellate defender of North Carolina in Durham has wondered if it was â€Å"right that the Supreme Court ruled saying prohibition of a flag that the Freedom of Speech Clause of the First Amendment was supposed to cover was justified.† (SIRS) Although Dowling-Sendor's issue dealt with a visual symbol the same principal can be applied to audible issues. Would the request of students speaking in a certain way violate their freedom of speech? I strongly believe that the less diverse a nation is the more stable. The quote, â€Å"Unite We Stand, Divided We Fall† seems to apply itself quite well in this situation. We as individuals can remain unique, but unless we find more common ground, starting at young ages such as high school, we are doomed to another civil war.